Parker-Jones, O., Green, D.W., Grogan, A., Pliatsikas, C., Filippopolitis, K., Ali, N., Lee, H. L., Ramsden, S., Gazarian, K., Prejawa, S., Seghier, M.L., & Price, C.J. (2012): Where, when and why brain activation differs for bilinguals and monolinguals during picture naming and reading. Cerebral Cortex. 22(4): 892-902

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Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that when
bilinguals named pictures or read words aloud, in their native or
nonnative language, activation was higher relative to monolinguals
in 5 left hemisphere regions: dorsal precentral gyrus, pars
triangularis, pars opercularis, superior temporal gyrus, and planum
temporale. We further demonstrate that these areas are sensitive
to increasing demands on speech production in monolinguals. This
suggests that the advantage of being bilingual comes at the
expense of increased work in brain areas that support monolingual
word processing. By comparing the effect of bilingualism across
a range of tasks, we argue that activation is higher in bilinguals
compared with monolinguals because word retrieval is more
demanding; articulation of each word is less rehearsed; and speech
output needs careful monitoring to avoid errors when competition
for word selection occurs between, as well as within, language.